It most likely means you have CentOS installed in Legacy BIOS mode. Check my previous question: Boot CentOS and tell us whether /sys/firmware/efi exists.Very Correct, I used Rufus to create the USB stick, does this mean I have a corrupted version of the CentOS?
I do not know how to recover from this but it might work to correctly create a USB stick from the iso image using the instructions in my sig below, then use that to reinstall CentOS from scratch, this time in UEFI mode. I cannot tell you if this will fix it nor if it will make the problem worse or better.
Others have suggested installing ntfs-3g but that won't help to fix this problem but it might let you access your files and make sure you have things backed up that you need.